Regarding the analysis of the PSEs, the results revealed a significant main effect of repetition, F(1, 19) = 5.40, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.22. Like Experiment 2a, the relevant conditions were matched in the number of strokes and character frequencies (all ps > 0.1). In a duration judgment task, however, lexical interpretation is “overwritten” by time estimation as the focus of the task is on how long a stimulus is present on the screen rather than on its semantic processing. (1999), which found the repetition effect in an identification task even when the standard and comparison words shared only one constituent character (e.g., “-magnificent” vs. “-luxurious”). Time representations can be made from nontemporal information in the brain: an MEG study. A one-way repeated-measures ANOVA with Greenhouse–Geisser correction for PSEs revealed a significant main effect of repetition, F(1.936, 36.780) = 10.64, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.36. Unsere Redaktion hat verschiedenste Marken unter die Lupe genommen und wir … repetition effect resulted from short-term activation of the S-R memory trace. Front. Daniel H. Spieler is now at the Department of Psychology, Stanford University. doi: 10.1073/pnas.93.24.13494, Eagleman, D. M., and Pariyadath, V. (2009). We found a similar magnitude of temporal compression for the repeated-word and repeated-pseudoword conditions. Under this account, the magnitudes of the repetition effect reflect the discrepancy between the predicted and actual items in terms of their physical characteristics. The current study investigated whether stimulus familiarity interacted with the repetition effect observed in a duration discrimination task using words and pseudowords. Psychology repetition effects - Der absolute Favorit der Redaktion. doi: 10.1007/s00426-004-0195-4, Wearden, J. H. (1992). That is, whereas in Experiment 2a (i.e., with word stimuli) neither first- nor second-character repetition conditions induced duration compression relative to novel baseline, the opposite was true for Experiment 2b (i.e., with pseudoword stimuli). This process may skip the temporal pulses otherwise accounted for, thus shortening the subjective duration of the unexpected stimulus (Zakay and Block, 1997; Ulrich and Bausenhart, 2019). doi: 10.1163/156856897X00357, Cai, M., Eagleman, D. M., and Ma, W. (2015). The trio of German psychological scientists noticed that during discussions, ... to remember – a well-studied phenomenon known as the “mere exposure effect.” Or, it’s possible that people use repetition as a social cue. This includes reenacting the event or putting oneself in situations that have a high probability of the event occurring again. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhp277, Desimone, R. (1996). Prior to the experimental session, each participant took part in a practice session of two blocks of 20 trials each. The psychophysics toolbox. Bertelson (1963) and Komblum (1969) both Four experiments were done to investigate the effects of repetition on judgment of recency (JOR). Sci. A 2 (repetition: repeated vs. novel) × 2 (word type: word vs. pseudoword) repeated-measures design was used in the experiment. We suggest this outcome indicates that pseudowords are processed at the component level whereas words are processed holistically in a duration judgment task. But nowhere does rhythmic repetition mesmerize us more powerfully than in music, with its singular way of enchanting the brain. By contrast, the constituent repetition of words did not show the compression effect, as words with only a constituent repetition might have been processed as a novel word altogether. 1, 1–11. Psychology repetition effects - Unser Testsieger . Time perception: the surprising effects of surprising stimuli. Neither the main effect of word type, F(1, 19) = 0.39, p = 0.54, ηp2 = 0.02, nor their interaction, F(1, 19) = 2.62, p = 0.12, ηp2 = 0.12, reached statistical significance. Atten. , 11 (4), 158 – . In this framework, the size of the repetition effect should be dependent on the similarity between the predicted and actual signals. Department of Psychology, University of Sydney, N.S.W., 2006Search for more papers by this author. Psychology repetition effects - Die qualitativsten Psychology repetition effects verglichen! Psychol. However, the constituent repetition of words did not show a duration compression. Lang. All participants were native speakers of Chinese, with normal or corrected-to-normal vision. Temporal cognition: connecting subjective duration to perception, attention and memory. doi: 10.1080/01690965.2013.790554, Tse, P. U., Intriligator, J., Rivest, J., and Cavanagh, P. (2004). The Effect of Grade Repetition on the Academic Performance of Infants and Primary Students - Volume 5 Issue 2 - Dianna Kenny. endstream endobj startxref Um Ihnen die Wahl des perfektes Produktes ein klein wenig leichter zu machen, haben unsere Produkttester schließlich den Sieger ausgesucht, welcher ohne Zweifel von allen Psychology repetition effects stark auffällig ist - insbesondere im Faktor Preis-Leistungs-Verhältnis. Neural response suppression predicts repetition priming of spoken words and pseudowords. We take these findings to imply that, (i) according to Experiment 1, familiarity alone does not impact the duration compression caused by the whole stimulus repetition, as words and pseudowords produced comparable duration compression. In order to explain the repetition duration effect, the attentional account assumes that unexpected stimuli capture more attention than do expected stimuli, thus resulting in longer subjective duration (Tse et al., 2004; Matthews and Gheorghiu, 2016; Matthews and Meck, 2016). Applied to the present study, we observed a discrepancy between the standard stimulus and two comparison conditions, namely, the constituent repeated and novel stimulus. To answer the questions aforementioned, the present study adopted Chinese two-character words and pseudowords. 2. To further investigate whether familiarity mediates duration perception when a pair of stimuli share a common constituent character, Experiment 2 compares whole repetition, first-character repetition, and second-character repetition for words (Experiment 2a) and pseudowords (Experiment 2b). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). LCD monitor with a refresh rate of 100 Hz. 32, 1–15. J. Vis. Psychiatr. Despite the fact that the foundation for the repetition effect on time duration still remains a subject of debate, three main accounts have been put forward. Trends Cogn. Psychon. Kenny, D.T. Psychol. h�b```e``` � {�400103�0pd�v>�6-_��!��34�B@ ��Z � 6�� ,Ԭ����৑�U&>��k}�f�� f� Cogn. Both PSEs for first-character repetition (mean differences: 24 ms, corrected p = 0.015) and for second-character repetition (mean differences: 16 ms, corrected p = 0.034) were significantly higher than the novel baseline. Psychology repetition effects - Die hochwertigsten Psychology repetition effects unter die Lupe genommen Auf welche Punkte Sie bei der Wahl Ihres Psychology repetition effects Acht geben sollten! In short, our statistical analysis revealed a different pattern of results in Experiments 2a and 2b. Australian Journal of Special Education, 9 (2), 16 – 23. In other words, JNDs indicating the sensitivity to temporal discrimination did not show significant changes among different experimental conditions. Thus, repetition need not lead to improved learning. �D��V�g��Iv�Y^�-�Iq���v��^�01Q�N�w�]|�e���>��g����֟-��l�n��fUo?\nV�u�y���7��{����6�y�. The phenomenon of repetition suppression, a reduction in neural activity when stimuli are repeated, is thought to depend on processing overlaps between repeated items and is generally considered to be the neural correlate of repetition priming. The influence of stimulus repetition on duration judgments with simple stimuli. Schendan, in Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, 2017Masked Priming and Short-Term Implicit Memory In immediate repetition priming paradigms (eg, semantic priming), when the study item is presented very briefly (eg, for 50 ms) and masked, this prime stimulus is typically not reported by people. For instance, memory-related factors such as the ISI between the standard and comparison stimuli have been shown to affect the repetition effect, as demonstrated in a study by Matthews (2015) where the repetition effect in the short (e.g., 306 ms) and long (e.g., 2,000 ms) ISI conditions were compared. Acad. Rather, repetition leads In summary, the present study provides clear evidence that the repetition of words and pseudowords promotes analogous duration compression, indicating that familiarity per se does not interact with the effect of the whole repetition in duration judgment. (A) Mean proportions of “long” responses against the comparison durations plotted with fitted psychometric curves representing the Rw, Nw, Rp, and Np conditions. Evidence is that learning usually proceeds gradually; even when a problem is solved insightfully, practice with similar tasks tends to … repetition effect in speeded-choice tasks by examining the pattern of interaction between repetition and other variables following Steinberg's additive-factors method (Sternberg, 1969). This is important because the extant line of investigation has mainly focused on the effects of whole-stimulus repetition (e.g., picture, simple symbol, and character). Repetition make us feel we are doing something right, that we have clicked into a groove. However, the attentional account does not explain the fact that the influence of constituent repetition led to different outcomes in the word and pseudoword conditions. In the decades since Zajonc published his paper on the mere exposure effect, researchers have suggested several theories to explain why the effect happens. doi: 10.3758/bf03210972, Treisman, M. (1963). When individuals A possible explanation for this disparity stems from the idea that semantic-related judgment of words, such as lexical decision, requires a deeper level of processing because each constituent morpheme must be interpreted. Experiment 2a compared the influence of word repetition with constituent character repetition on duration judgment. J. Neurosci. Cortex 16, 1797–1808. Similarly, the arousal account also fails to offer a satisfactory explanation for the divergent findings regarding constituent repetition of words and pseudowords. It is important to highlight that these studies demonstrated the repetition duration compression (Matthews and Gheorghiu, 2016) and explained the phenomenon with bases on the predictive coding account (Schindel et al., 2011; Pariyadath and Eagleman, 2012; Jia and Shi, 2017; Saurels et al., 2019). Lond. The findings revealed in Experiment 1 showed that the repetition of words and pseudowords produces comparable duration compression, thus indicating that familiarity did not interact with the repetition duration effect. Unsere Redakteure haben uns der wichtigen Aufgabe angenommen, Ware unterschiedlichster Variante zu analysieren, sodass Sie als Interessierter Leser auf einen Blick den Psychology repetition effects gönnen können, den Sie zuhause haben wollen. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2006.18.8.1237, Pariyadath, V., and Eagleman, D. M. (2012). Thirty-nine students from Jiangnan University volunteered to take part in the experiments (20 in Experiment 2a and 19 in Experiment 2b; 24 females; mean age: 21.6 years). 22, 3–38. Psychol. A lower JND indicates better temporal discrimination. The repetition of a stimulus often produces a shorter subjective duration than does the presentation of a novel item. Indeed, some neuroimaging studies have shown that neural responses are not only suppressed but also enhanced for repetition (Segaert et al., 2013), indicating that the neural responses do not always reflect the perceived duration. The mean PSEs (±SE) were 610 (±10), 561 (±11), 572 (±9), and 557 (±11) ms, for word repetition, first-character repetition, second-character repetition, and novel baseline conditions, respectively (Figure 3). Atten. Interestingly, we did not find the constituent repetition effect for words (Experiment 2a). The PSE was the comparison duration at the 50% point of the curve as a measure of perceived duration (Treutwein and Strasburger, 1999; Birngruber et al., 2015; Jia and Shi, 2017). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 11, 529 – 553. In other words, familiar stimuli (e.g., words) tend to be processed at an integrated level, whereas unfamiliar stimuli (e.g., pseudowords) are processed at the component level. of repetition on memory storage and retrieval, evidence that may call some aspects of the well-established repetition effect into question has recently surfaced. Each participant performed the experiment individually in a dimly illuminated room. However, temporal compression for the first- and second-character repetitions was observed only for pseudowords but not for words. In the sequence, the standard stimulus was displayed for a fixed duration of 600 ms, followed by a 300–500 ms interstimulus interval (ISI). 123-138 (1991) The Effect of Spacing Repetitions on the Recognition Memory of Young Children and Adults THOMAS C. TOPPINO. Rev. Motiv. 142, 865–907. Neural response suppression, haemodynamic repetition effects, and behavioural priming. While repetition effects are difficult to observe for very high and very low levels of perceived truth, our results suggest that repetition increases participants’ internal representation of truth equally for all statements. 2015; Wang et al. Similar facilitatory effects of repetition have been demonstrated in other tasks, including the lexical decision task (Scarborough, Cortes, & Scarborough, 1977), the word fragment completion task (Tulving, Schacter, & Stark, 1982) and so forth. %%EOF Therefore, our findings indicate that a single repetition of an unfamiliar stimulus is sufficient to induce duration compression with a magnitude equivalent to that of a familiar stimulus. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Spaced repetition is a learning technique that incorporates increasing intervals of time between subsequent review of previously learned material; this exploits the psychological spacing effect. 31600876 to XZ). Cogn. Science 287, 1269–1272. OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY 51. Psychology repetition effects - Vertrauen Sie unserem Sieger. (2015). R. Soc. Although the aforementioned studies demonstrated that the repetition of familiar or unfamiliar stimuli produces duration compression relative to novel stimuli (Matthews, 2011; Birngruber et al., 2015; Cai et al., 2015; Jia and Shi, 2017), it is vital to highlight that there has been little evidence of how the familiarity (i.e., words vs. pseudowords in the same study) influences the size of the repetition duration effect. Predictable events elicit less visual and temporal information uptake in an oddball paradigm. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. The post-hoc Holm–Bonferroni correction showed that mean PSEs were significantly higher for the pseudoword repetition condition as compared with the first-character repetition (mean differences: 31 ms, corrected p = 0.008), second-character repetition (mean differences: 39 ms, corrected p = 0.000), and novel baseline conditions (mean differences: 55 ms, corrected p = 0.000). Psychol. Neurosci. *p < 0.05. Over and above that, there is a consensus that the repetition duration effect is rather a response to perceptual bias (Birngruber et al., 2014; Matthews and Gheorghiu, 2016; Ulrich and Bausenhart, 2019). Repetition increased truth judgments for all three age groups, and prior knowledge did not protect participants from the effects of repetition. Psychol. doi: 10.3758/s13414-013-0602-2, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Birngruber, T., Schröter, H., and Ulrich, R. (2015). 61, 87–106. Percept. Psychol. On the other hand, should duration compression be stronger for repeated words than that of repeated pseudowords, we can argue that familiarity does interact with the effect. For instance, whereas lexical-related processing is essential in a lexical decision task, semantic processing seems not important in a duration judgment task. endstream endobj 42 0 obj <>stream Opin. J. Exp. The test session lasted about 50 min. For this reason, it is essential to use duration judgment tasks to investigate whether stimulus familiarity mediates the repetition duration effect. This illusory truth effect is well established; however, it has been argued that repetition will not affect belief in unambiguous statements. This outcome is the opposite effect commonly observed in the classic duration compression of repeated stimuli. Skip to main content. Key words: repetition effect, spacing effect, bilingual, verbal system, conceptual system. Repetition increases the likelihood that a statement will be judged as true. Last but not least, repetition conditions did not influence JNDs, F(3, 54) = 0.57, p = 0.64, ηp2 = 0.03. Timing Time Percept. Trans. 360, 815–836. The analysis failed to reveal any significant difference of PSEs between the first-character repetition and second-character repetition (corrected p = 0.212), between the second-character repetition and novel baseline (corrected p = 0.189), and between the first-character repetition and novel baseline (corrected p = 0.676). These results suggest that the illusory-truth effect is a universal effect learned at a young Moreover, neuroimaging studies revealed that as neural responses to repeated-familiar stimuli (e.g., famous faces and words) decreased, the neural responses to repeated-unfamiliar stimuli (e.g., non-famous faces and pseudowords) increased (Henson et al., 2000; Fiebach et al., 2005). Psychol. Moreover, we revealed that when the standard and comparison stimuli shared a constituent character at the first or second position, there was a repetition compression for pseudowords; however, it was reduced in relation to the whole pseudoword repetition. Written informed consent was obtained from each participant before the experiments. As an example, in a duration discrimination task, in which the participants had to respond whether the presentation time of the comparison stimulus was shorter or longer than that of the baseline, Birngruber et al. 70, 77–87. *Correspondence: Xuelian Zang,; Xiaocheng Wang,, Front. Wir haben eine große Auswahl an Hersteller & Marken unter die Lupe genommen und wir präsentieren Ihnen hier unsere Resultate. Spaced repetition („verteilte Wiederholung“) ist eine Lernmethode, die zunehmende Zeitabstände zwischen der Wiederholung gelernter Inhalte vorsieht.Sie nutzt damit den „Spacing-Effekt“ aus, wonach Inhalte, die über einen längeren Zeitraum gelernt werden, besser im Gedächtnis hängen bleiben, als solche, die in einer kurzen Zeit intensiv wiederholt werden. 0 Psychophys. What is more, until now, most empirical evidence for the constituent repetition effect comes from studies using various non-temporal tasks (Zhou et al., 1999; Tsang et al., 2014; Wu et al., 2016), such as the study by Zhou et al. 14, 525–565. These results suggest that the illusory-truth effect is a universal effect learned at a young age. Humans exhibit enhanced memory performance when information is encoded by physically enacting it, as opposed to passively reading or hearing the same information; an effect referred to as “enactment effect.” The present study explored the effects of language (native vs. non-native) and semantic repetition (repeated vs. non-repeated) on the enactment effect in action memory. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhj117, Orfanidou, E., Marslen-Wilson, W. D., and Davis, M. H. (2006). repetition and spacing provides evidence that the repetition decrement effect is driven by the same ‘deficient processing’ mechanism that underlies the spacing Ph.D. Thesis - R. N. Collins; McMaster – Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour Rev. Thus, prediction errors differed among three experimental conditions: no prediction error for whole-repeated stimuli, partial prediction error for the constituent repeated stimuli, and the most prediction errors for novel stimuli. Repetition, expectation, and the perception of time. Front. When introducing a further experiment with two new conditions in which the standard–comparison pair shared a character at the first or second constituent position, we observed a shorter subjective duration for whole word (or whole pseudoword) repetition compared with the remaining conditions (i.e., first-character repetition, second-character repetition, and novel baseline). 6:1213. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01213, Brainard, D. (1997). Repetition probability effects depend on prior experiences. 76, 814–828. As for the analysis of JNDs, however, no significant effect was found [repetition, F(1, 19) = 0.87, p = 0.36, ηp2 = 0.04; word type, F(1, 19) = 1.19, p = 0.29, ηp2 = 0.06; interaction, F(1, 19) = 0.06, p = 0.81, ηp2 = 0.003]. Perceived duration: the interplay of top-down attention and task-relevant information. 45 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<23B63990271DC74CB5258FBB490C22A5>]/Index[38 16]/Info 37 0 R/Length 61/Prev 360549/Root 39 0 R/Size 54/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream The Mysterious Effects of Repetition on Music Perception New research sheds light on how the brain differentiates speech from song. For instance, the number of changes (e.g., varying the angles of lines) between the oddball and standard stimuli has been shown to modulate the magnitude of the oddball effect (Schindel et al., 2011; Pariyadath and Eagleman, 2012). From the fitted curves, the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the just-noticeable difference (JND) were estimated. However, we did find a duration compression effect for constituent character repetition in pseudowords, although the strength of the compression was smaller than that of whole pseudoword repetition (Experiment 2b). Statistical learning of visual transitions in monkey inferotemporal cortex. doi: 10.1016/S0028-3932(02)00159-8, Jia, L., and Shi, Z. Consequently, this process places the predictive coding account as a more comprehensive explanation for the present repetition duration compression than the aforementioned accounts of attentional/arousal and repetition suppression (Jia and Shi, 2017). Repetition as an outcome/ in the service of the pleasure principle - an affirmation, a basis for change. Process. Fitting the psychometric function. (B) The bars indicate the mean points of subjective equality (PSEs), and their corresponding standard errors in each condition (all *p < 0.05). Is subjective duration a signature of coding efficiency? Four experiments were done to investigate the effects of repetition on judgment of recency (JOR). Repetition and the brain: neural models of stimulus-specific effects. However, (ii) familiarity does mediate the effect of constituent character repetition in duration judgment as observed in Experiment 2. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2005.1622, Gibbon, J. In this specific regard, the attentional account supports our results as we found that the duration of novel words/pseudowords were judged as being longer than that of repeated stimuli (Tse et al., 2004). One hundred ten Chinese bimorphemic words and 110 pseudowords were selected to serve as the experimental stimuli.